The history of Uttar Pradesh the Northern Indian state, stretches back technically to its formation on 1 April 1937 as the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, but the region itself shows the presence of human habitation dating back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago.  It came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857. They minced no words in calling the Yogi government one of the most corrupt governments in the history of Uttar Pradesh. The Aryans, through conquests occupied the adjoining areas too. In 2000 BC the Aryans came and laid the foundation of a Hindu civilization. Meanwhile, by the 6th century bce, the ancient Vedic religion had largely evolved into Brahmanism, which in turn would evolve into classical Hinduism by the 2nd century bce. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. Although UP later became the fifth largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Hindu art experienced its greatest development during the period of rule by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th century ce). In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire, in the mid 18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohillkhand to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. . Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente).  Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the 8th century to the 10th century.. Uttar Pradesh 2019: Population, History, Literacy and Facts. Falk, Harry. The culture of Uttar Pradesh swears by its rich historical past with its roots from Urdu. Buland Darwaza (Victory Gate) of the JÄmiÊ¿ Masjid (Great Mosque) at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Agra is the largest district by population. “Prayagasya […] 2015-09-18 Government of Uttar Pradesh, India, confirms 2.3 million people applied for 238 menial office jobs; 2017-06-05 Bus crashes with a truck in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, 22 die in resulting fire; 2017-09-14 19 people die when a boat capsizes on Yamun River in Uttar Pradesh, India; 2017-11-27 8 Donkeys freed from jail after 4 days in Orai, Uttar Pradesh, India for eating plants It is believed to be the land of the Nawabs, of Rama and Buddha, of Taj Mahal. edit.  After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India; Bengal regiment's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment, Mangal Pandey, is widely credited as its starting point. Jahangir was succeeded by his son Shah Jahan. Even today Northeast […] Because of its position in the heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, it has often been the focal point in the history of all of northern India.  Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. 1995. In fact history significantly defines the lifestyle of the present Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh/Culture. Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh between around 85 and 72 thousand years old. The region was the site of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, with revolts at Meerut, Kanpur, and Lucknow. Another fountainhead of mythology in the state is the area around the holy cities of Mathura, where Krishna (another incarnation of Vishnu) was born, and nearby Vrindavan. The earlier settlements of the Aryans were established in this city, then known as Prayag. After independence in 1947, the United Provinces were renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. It boasts of a m lange of vivid culture and architectural finesse and is synonymous with vibrant hues, delectable cuisine, timeless traditions, monumental heritage and astounding music. Uttar Pradesh has the oldest seat of India’s culture and civilization, as it is around the holy river Ganga where the ancient cities and towns were found. The great war of the Mahabharata between the Kauravas and Pandavas was said to have been fought here. Political History of Uttar Pradesh. At first, Buddhist and Brahmanic or Hindu culture flourished side by side. Chakrabarti, D.K. After the death of Harsha, about 647, there was a gradual downfall of Buddhism accompanied by a revival of Hinduism. There are many Mythological facts about the great historical value of district Bahraich. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be … Indigo was cultivated in the adjoining areas of Agra during the … The history of Uttar Pradesh can be divided into five periods: (1) prehistory and mythology (up to c. 600 bce), (2) the Buddhist-Hindu period (c. 600 bce to c. 1200 ce), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1775), (4) the British period (c. 1775 to 1947), and (5) the postindependence period (1947 to the present). Its official and widely spoken languages are Hindi and Urdu. Politics. Learn more about Uttar Pradesh’s history and government in this article. Ancient History of Uttar Pradesh The history of Uttar Pradesh starts with the advent of Aryans hordes from Central Asian region. The Mughal Empire promoted the development of a new composite culture. Uttar Pradesh - Uttar Pradesh - History: The history of Uttar Pradesh can be divided into five periods: (1) prehistory and mythology (up to c. 600 bce), (2) the Buddhist-Hindu period (c. 600 bce to c. 1200 ce), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1775), (4) the British period (c. 1775 to 1947), and (5) the postindependence period (1947 to the present). The Taj Mahal is considered one of the most significant examples of Indo-Islamic architecture. The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 36, 193–275, ISSN 0076-2741.  According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Nationally known figures such as Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and plays a significant role in defining the present day Uttar Pradesh. In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new r… Religious Importance. Kosala figured prominently among the four powerful monarchies of northern India during the time of the Buddha when its Prosperity reached its zenith. History Uttar Pradesh, abbreviated U.P., is a state locatedin northern India. It was famous as the Capital of God Brahma, the maker of the universe. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and it would not be wrong to state that the history of Uttar Pradesh plays a key role in defining the lifestyle of the present day Uttar Pradesh. The meeting point is known as Triveni and is especially sacred to Hindus. Uttar Pradesh which includes a big chuck of Gangetic Plain was created as United Provinces in 1937 during British rule and after independence it was renamed as Uttar Pradesh in 1950.  He was succeeded by his son Jahangir. For nearly 600 years Uttar Pradesh, like much of India, was ruled by one Muslim dynasty or another, each centred in or near Delhi. Lakhimpur Kheeri is the largest district of Uttar Pradesh by area. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. It was formed in 1937 when it was called the United Province of Agra and Oudh. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very old and fascinating and had a great impact on the Indian culture and civilization. Among the great kings who ruled over the region were Chandragupta (reigned c. 321â297 bce) and Ashoka (3rd century bce), both Mauryan emperors, as well as Samudra Gupta (4th century ce) and Chandra Gupta II (reigned c. 380â415).  Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement. The downfall of the Mughals in the 18th century led to the shifting of the centre of that composite culture from Delhi to Lucknow, the seat of the nawab (ruler) of Oudh (now Ayodhya), where art, literature, music, and poetry flourished in an atmosphere of communal harmony. Although not much is known about its … , In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture). He was bestowed the title of Vikramaditya at his coronation in Purana Quila in Delhi. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Goyal, S. R. "Ancient Indian Inscriptions" Kusumanjali Book World, Jodhpur (India), 2005. History of district Bahraich The dense forests and fast-flowing rivers are the specialities of district Bahraich. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Stupa commemorating where the Buddha was said to have first taught his followers, Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India. Liu, Xinru 2001 "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies.". Shah JahÄn also built several other architecturally important buildings in Agra as well as in Delhi. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state of India. info), líkas: Pangulung Lalawigan), [maralas deng ausang U.P. Geography. Stretching from the north-west territories to the eastern states its history is almost synonymous to the history of north India. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very much associated with the broad history of India. The history of Uttar Pradesh dates back to the period when 'Dasas' occupied Uttar Pradesh. Of those, seven fell entirely within the present-day boundaries of Uttar Pradesh. The religion he founded, Buddhism, spread not only across India but also to many distant lands, such as China and Japan. edit. He ruled his […] Uttar Pradesh/Geography. Indian Studies Past and Present 4, 333–358. History. Uttar Pradesh is 4th largest state by area and top most state by population. "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the. 1992, a large group of Hindu activists demolished the 16th-century Babri Mosque in the city of Ayodhya, which is claimed to be the site of Ram Janmabhoomi. Uttar Pradesh for its strategic position, in ancient times was known the Madhya Desh. Sculptures and architecture replete with Buddhist symbolism reached their zenith during the 3rd-century-bce reign of Ashoka. Confidence limits for the age are 85 (±11) and 72 (±8) thousand years ago. History Tajmahal. C.H. Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor Akbar's rule. The state’s name is Hindi for ‘northern state’ and its capital is Lucknow, in the west-central part of the state. It will not only be insightful but, being revision friendly, it will be helpful for quick last-minute revision. The Hindu deity Vishnu reclining on the serpent Sesha; sandstone relief panel on the Vishnu temple at Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, 5th century. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and it would not be wrong to state that the history of Uttar Pradesh plays a key role in defining the lifestyle of the present day Uttar Pradesh. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The Buddha is said to have attained parinirvana (complete nirvana) at Kushinagara (now in Kasia, in eastern Uttar Pradesh).  Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region. The region seems to have been domesticated as early as 6,000 BC. Metalwork of the Bronze Age in India. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the Benaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and the Darul Uloom Deoband.  Following the Huns invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. Kusumanjali Prakashan, Jodhpur. Shah Jahan is famous for building the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum for his queen Mumtaz Mahal. Medieval History of Uttar Pradesh. Similarly, there will be an article on medieval and modern Uttar Pradesh history tomorrow and … , Most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh.  Akbar ruled from Agra and his newly established city, Fatehpur Sikri. They alleged Uttar Pradesh police were persecuting people of other castes, other than Thakurs because the Chief Minister belonged to Thakur caste.  Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. Newly Discovered Copper Hoard, Weapons of South Asia (C. 2800–1500 BC), Delhi, Bharatiya Kala Prakashan,182 p. Yule, P. 1985. The remains of several human skeletons found in the area of Partapgarh (Pratapgarh) have been dated to about 10,000 bce. History. After India’s Independence, this land was renamed as Uttar Pradesh on January 24, 1950.  The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. It was created on 1 April 1937as the United Provinces with the passing of theStates Reorganization Act and renamed UttarPradesh in 1950. , Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. A later famous ruler, Harsha (reigned c. 606â647), was based within the stateâs present borders. Other knowledge of the area prior to the 7th century bce has been gained largely through Vedic literature (of the ancient Indian Vedic religion) and the two great Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which describe the Gangetic Plain within Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh/History. Gupta, S.P. His grandson, Shah JahÄn (reigned 1628â58), built at Agra one of the worldâs greatest architectural achievements, the Taj Mahal (a mausoleum constructed in memory of his favourite wife, who died in childbirth). Remains of the Buddha's hut in Jetavana Monastery, Uttar Pradesh, India. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in North-west India, around 1000 BC. Sharma, Deo Prakash, 2002. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period; extending into the Iron Age. The Delhi Sultanate ruled much of North India between 1206 and 1526 CE. History Azamgarh, one of the easternmost districts of the State, once formed a part of the ancient Kosala kingdom, except the north-eastern part of it which was included in the kingdom of Malla. The History of India by Kenneth Pletcher p.102, The City in South Asia by James Heitzman p.37, "Prehistoric human colonization of India", The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire), God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia, "Modern Human Origins and the Evolution of Behavior in the Later Pleistocene Record of South Asia", The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture, https://web.archive.org/web/20060908052731/http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_01.html, "Project MUSE – Journal of World History", The History and Culture of the Indian People, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Uttar_Pradesh&oldid=969128641, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The state has provided seven of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. The history of Uttar Pradesh the Northern Indian state, stretches back technically to its formation on 1 April 1937 as the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, but the region itself shows the presence of human habitation dating back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago. The city of Prayagraj is among the largest cities of Uttar Pradesh and situated at the confluence of three rivers- Ganga, Yamuna and the invisible Saraswati. From the rule of Rama to the rule of British, Uttar Pradesh has seen it all. A systematic history of India and the area of Uttar Pradesh dates to the end of the 7th century bce, when 16 mahajanapadas (great states) in northern India were contending for supremacy. There were incidents of communal violence in 1980 and 1987.  It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Faccenna, Domenico (1980). The chief architect of that revival, the philosopher Shankara, born in southern India, visited Varanasi, traveled through the plains of Uttar Pradesh, and is thought to have established the famous temple at Badrinath (now in Uttarakhand) in the Himalayas. It was also known as part of Gandharva Forest. The Aryan hypothesis in Indian archaeology. Due to is position, most invaders crossed it in the course of their invasions. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. In ancient times, Uttar Pradesh was known as the Madhya Desh. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. , The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh/Politics. Agra was founded by Sultan Sikander Lodhi in 1506.; After Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi ascended to the throne of Agra, who was defeated by Babur in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and Babur established the Mughal Empire. From his capital at Kanyakubja (present-day Kannauj), he was able to control the whole of Uttar Pradesh as well as parts of what are now Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. This land has been rules by many in the course of history. ; Agra was the main centre of education during the Mughal period.  It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south.  During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. In 2000, the state of Uttarakhand was carved out from Uttar pradesh, Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh between around 85 and 73 thousand years old. Formerly the area of Uttar Pradesh was occupied by the Aryans or the Dasas and their main occupation was agriculture. Uttar Pradesh/Economy. After the revolt failed, the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganizing the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. During the first half of that time, the rulers were members of the Delhi sultanate. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. After the Sultan’s death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. The setting of the Mahabharata is the area around Hastinapur, in the western part of the present-day state, while the Ramayana is set in and around Ayodhya, the birthplace of Rama (an incarnation of the god Vishnu and the hero of the story). Despite its political influence, its poor economic development and administrative record, organised crime and corruption kept it amongst India's backward states. The region seems to have been domesticated as early as 6,000 BC. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization. Share and tell about your experience related to Uttar Pradesh in our wiki-based forum or on the talk page here.  Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad. It was created on 1st April 1937 as United Province and later renamed to 1 as Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh State – The full name of Uttar Pradesh is ‘Uttar Pradesh Northern Province’. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence.. In this article of series of UP Special, we will read about the ancient history of Uttar Pradesh. Archaeological investigations have shed new light on the prehistoric civilization of what is now Uttar Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh still has a great impact on Indian culture and civilization. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (100–250 CE), Gupta (350–600 CE), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036 CE) empires. edit. Lucknow is the capital city and Allahabad is the Judiciary Capital of the state. , Middle Kingdoms (c. 200 BCE – c. 1200 CE), Late Medieval and Early Modern period (c. 1200-1858 CE), Company Rule and Indian Rebellion of 1857. The epics of Hinduism, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata, were written in Uttar Pradesh. The early modern period in the region started in 1526 after Babur invaded the Delhi Sultanate, and established the Mughal Empire covering large parts of modern Uttar Pradesh. 1968. Several new sects seeking a common ground between Hinduism and Islam, as well as between the various castes of India, developed during that period. In 1526 BÄburâa descendant of the conquerors Genghis Khan and Timur (Tamerlane)âdefeated Sultan IbrÄhÄ«m LodÄ« of Delhi and laid the foundation of the most successful of the Muslim dynasties, the Mughals, whose empire, centred in what is now Uttar Pradesh, dominated the subcontinent for more than 200 years. Akbar, its greatest exponent, employed in his court men preeminent in architecture, literature, painting, and music, irrespective of their caste or creed. The region was also a site for the Indian Independence movement with the Indian National Congress.  It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP. It is generally accepted that Agra was both an ancient city from the times of the Mahabharata (see above) and yet nevertheless Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. According to tradition, it was during that periodâlikely sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries bceâthat the Buddha preached his first sermon at Sarnath, near Varanasi. Ramananda (c. 1400â70), a Brahman (Hindu priest), founded a bhakti (devotional) sect that claimed that salvation was not dependent on oneâs sex or caste, and KabÄ«r (1440â1518) preached the essential unity of all religions. Although Muslim incursions into the area occurred as early as 1000â30 ce, Muslim rule over northern India was not established until the last decade of the 12th century, when MuÊ¿izz al-DÄ«n Muá¸¥ammad ibn SÄm (Muá¸¥ammad GhÅ«rÄ«) defeated the Gahadavalas (who occupied much of Uttar Pradesh) and other competing dynasties. The Ayodhya dispute triggered massive protests across the state as well as nationally and internationally.  Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Shah Jahan was succeeded by his son Aurangzeb, who did not share the religious tolerance of his ancestors, and was infamous for the destruction of temples. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous and fourth largest state of India, which lies in the north-central part of the country. Culture. The greatest extent of the empire came under Akbar (reigned 1556â1605), who constructed a grand new capital, Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. The remnants of the Mughal Empire include their monuments, most notably Fatehpur Sikri, Allahabad Fort, Agra Fort, and the Taj Mahal. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very old and fascinating and had a great impact on the Indian culture and civilization. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. (ed.). From the 5th century bce to the 6th century ce, the region was mostly under the control of powers centred outside the modern boundaries of the state, first at Magadha in present-day Bihar and later at Ujjain in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Interior room of the marble Octagonal Tower (Musamman Burj) in Agra Fort (Red Fort), Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. , After India's independence, the United Provinces were reorganized as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Uttar Pradesh Gk , History , important facts , Political Structure for Exams ... Uttar Pradesh GK & Current Affairs July to October 2017 - UPSSSC / UP PCS / UP PSC & other UP Exams - … Butkara I (Swāt, Pakistan) 1956–1962, Volume III 1 (in English). Uttar Pradesh: A political history Over the last 25 years, a fractured verdict has been typical of India’s biggest, most important, and most complex political battleground. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. All these reivers except Gomti emerge from Himalayas. Besides the Kurus and Panchalas the Vatsas, the Kosis, Hosalas, Videhas etc formed the early region of Uttar Pradesh. In 2000, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of Uttarakhand.  Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Agra.. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 150… , During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith. 2001. The main attraction of India Taj is situated in Uttar Pradesh. Being on the route of invaders from north-west and forming part of the rich fertile plain between Delhi and Patna, its history is closely linked to the history of north India. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak "The Arctic Home in the Vedas", Messrs Tilak Bros., 1903, This page was last edited on 23 July 2020, at 15:29. The main rivers of the state are Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti and Ghagra. The regions of Uttar Pradesh was said to have been the ancient Panchala country. Some BJP lawmakers even called the present political dispensation a casteist. edit. Uttar Pradesh - History. Economy. Beck, Munich, Yule, P./Hauptmann, A./Hughes, M. 1989 . edit. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkaya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state.  Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh.