Structure of Fasciola Hepatica 3. F. hepatica has a cosmopolitan distribution and is common in areas where sheep and cattle are being reared. Alatoom, A., Cavuoti, D., Southern, P. and Gander, R., 2008. Although F. hepatica and F. gigantica are distinct species, “intermediate forms” that are thought to represent hybrids of the two species have been found in parts of Asia and Africa where both species are endemic. It consists of an outer layer of circular muscle fibres, middle layer of longitudinal muscle fibres and an inner layer of diagonal muscle fibres which are more developed in the anterior half of the body. If the metacercariae are formed in water they can live for a year, but if they are formed on grass or vegetation then they survive only for a few weeks, they can withstand short periods of drying. Fasciola hepatica IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive. Reserve food, mostly in the form of glycogen and fats is stored in the parenchyma. Liver flukes re­pro­duce both sex­u­ally and asex­u­ally. Prevalence is highest in areas where extensive sheep and cattle raising occurs and where dietary practices include the consumption of raw aquatic vegetables. However, monosaccharide sugars like glucose, fructose, etc., are directly diffused into the body of the fluke through general body surface from the surrounding fluid of the host. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits Infect Genet Evol. Fasciola hepatica is found on all inhabited continents, in more than 70 countries, particularly where sheep or cattle are raised. Previous studies in north-west Europe have described its geographical distribution and determined potential predictors of fasciolosis using geographical information system (GIS) and regression modelling. It is found in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Thus, the digestive system functions as a gastro vascular system. Share Your Word File infection in humans has two main phases, which may or may not be associated with symptoms or other clinical manifestations. The somatic cell divides and forms the ectoderm of the larva. CDC has developed a CLIA-approved immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of Fasciola infection, which is based on a recombinant F. hepatica antigen (FhSAP2)*. Thus, there is a period of asexual multiplication during larval stages, followed by sexual reproduction in the adult fluke. The life cycle of this organism is complex and involves a snail as intermediate host. Although several lymnaeid species susceptible to F. hepatica have been describ… A narrow and slender vas deferens or sperm duct arises from each testis and runs forwards. The young flukes stay in the liver for seven or eight weeks feeding mainly on blood and then they enter the bile duct and bile passages. Anus is wanting because alimentary canal is incomplete. Snail species may differ with respect to their suitability to serve as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica versus F. gigantica; host ranges for both Fasciola spp. The cells lining the wall of testes give rise to spermatozoa. Wild ruminants and other mammals, including humans, can act as definitive hosts as well. The female reproductive system consists of ovary, oviduct, uterus, vitelline glands, Mehlis’s glands and Laurer’s canal. Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. It serves the purpose of storing sperms. The intestinal caeca give out a number of branching diverticula in order to carry food to all parts of the body since there is no circulatory system.

fasciola hepatica distribution

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