Incendiary and flaming weapons were used in warfare for centuries prior to the invention of Greek fire. Although sulfur, pine resin, and petrol have been proposed as the ingredients used in Greek fire, the true formula is nearly impossible to confirm. L'espressione "fuoco greco" non è riscontrata nelle fonti bizantine; in esse tale miscela era chiamata con i nomi "fuoco marino" (πῦρ θαλάσσιον, pŷr thalássion), "fuoco romano" (πῦρ ῥωμαϊκόν, pŷr rhōmaïkón), "fuoco di guerra" (πολεμικὸν πῦρ, polemikòn pŷr), "fuoco liquido" (ὑγρὸν πῦρ, hygròn pŷr), "fuoco vischioso" (πῦρ κολλητικόν, pŷr kollētikón), o "fuoco artificiale" (πῦρ σκευαστόν, pŷr skeuastón). Although incendiary weapons are nothing new to war, e.g. This was probably sourced from the Crimea. Theophanes records that Greek fire was invented c. 670 in Constantinople by Kallinikos (Callinicus), an architect from Heliopolis in Syria; Partington thinks it likely that "Greek fire was really invented by the chemists in Constantinople who had inherited the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school[. Il fuoco greco era una delle più efficaci armi termiche, nonostante fosse molto pericolosa anche per … Historical sources indicate that it was originally devised under the reign of Constantine IV Pogantus (668-685). Callinicus probably used this as the foundation for Greek Fire but made it much more potent and easier to use. Greek Fire: The Byzantine Empire's Secret Weapon the Ancient World Feared. It has been speculated that Greek Fire probably consisted of a mixture of petroleum, pitch, sulfur, pine or cedar resin, lime, and bitumen. Greek Fire appears to have first been used in anger in 673 AD during the first Arab Siege of Constantinople. The process for making the liquid must have been a very dangerous one indeed. Pryor, John H.; Jeffreys, Elizabeth M. (2006). The ships were augmented with tubes mounted on their prows. There were various formula for creating Greek Fire. He had escaped to Constantinople from Muslim held Syria in around 668 AD. Il fuoco greco era una miscela usata dai bizantini per attaccare i nemici con il fuoco e in particolar modo per incendiare il naviglio avversario. “Greek Fire- While your SpellCasters have been working in the dark arts, your engineers have been stewing over the mysteries of Greek Fire. On the contrary, it appeared to burn vigorously when in contact with water and would stick to anything it came into contact with. If true this would have made it a very potent naval weapon indeed. It was invented during the reign of Constantine IV Pogonatus (668–685) by Callinicus of Heliopolis, a Greek-speaking Jewish refugee who had fled the Arab conquest of Syria. Greek Fire Recipe: fine grained raw potassium (or lithium) metal powder suspended in oils (olive oil + lamp oil). "This fire is made by the following arts. They were used majorly in the naval battles as the fire could burn when still on water. Because we don’t know enough about Greek fire to be sure we’ve recreated it. Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. It is named after the Byzantine Greeks, who were especially fond of using it in battle, although it was also employed by the Arabs, Chinese, and Mongols, among others. Greek Fire became so important to the Byzantines that Emperor Romanos II (reigned between 959-963 AD) declared that three things must never reach enemy hands. The distillation of petroleum, if it was used, would also have required a highly advanced technology for the time. The invention of Greek Fire is credited to a Christian Greek named Kallinikos (aka Callinicus) who escaped to Constantinople from Muslim-held Syria in 668 CE. Il fuoco greco (in greco antico: ὑγρόν πῦρ, hygròn pŷr, «fuoco liquido») era una miscela usata dai bizantini per attaccare i nemici con il fuoco e in particolar modo per incendiare il naviglio avversario. Interestingly, it does appear that it could be countered, at least in part. Enemy will freak out and throw water on it. The Official Greek Fire YouTube Channel. In the case of the latter, it can be, ostensibly, thought of as similar to a modern-day flamethrower. ostensibly, thought of as similar to a modern-day flamethrower. Greek fire was a very dangerous weapon for the mortals that used it, and for the enemies. Although the exact recipe was a closely guarded secret light petroleum or naphtha are known to be one of the main ingredients. Its exact recipe was a jealously guarded secret that has now been lost to the ages. Especially if it was as volatile as contemporary accounts highlight. Napalm on the other hand did not change much in the Vietnam war, and still is of dubious use. What we know about Greek fire comes from a handful of vague descriptions of it set down in antiquity by a variety of different writers. The latter was a mixture of saltpeter and turpentine but true Greek Fire was a much more potent substance indeed. The incendiary concoction could be deployed in a variety of methods. For this reason, it has been cited by some historians that Greek Fire could well be the main reason for the long survival of the Byzantine Empire. The substance could be thrown in pots or discharged from tubes; it apparently caught fire spontaneously and could not be extinguished with water. Despite this, some partial recipes have been found by historians from Byzantine sources. A Greek-speaking Syrian refugee, Callinicus of Heliopolis, is thought to have refined the recipe in around 678 AD. Its formula was a jealously guarded secret passed from Emperor to Emperor until the fall of the Empire in 1453. It was either thrown in pots or discharged from siphoned handheld or ship-mounted tubes. Not only does it make Fire Ships even more effective against Galleons (in some cases they are able to take out large masses with proper back-up), but it also allows them to raze significantly more shoreline infrastructure, something Cannon Galleonscan have trouble with in some cases. ... (2005) turns on a lost formula for Greek Fire (from Chapter 7). John I Tzimisces also used Greek Fire to great effect during a land battle in 972 AD when he liberated the city of Preslav from the Russians. Greek Fire is an Technology researched at the Academy. Greek Fire helped protect the besieged Byzantine Empire for many centuries. This precaution was so successful that it was kept a secret for over 700 years and has since been lost to history. Unleashed by a skeletal figurehead, a sulphurous spray spreads all the terrors of the inferno … Some remain convinced that quicklime was part of the mixture, since it catches fire in the water. Furthermore, Thucydides mentions the use of tubed flamethrowers in the siege of Delium in 424 BC. Furthermore, Thucydides mentions that in the siege of Deliumin 424 BC a long tube on wh… Under the command of Constantine the IV, the entire Arab fleet was decimated using their new invention. Because of its effectiveness, similar fire-based weapons used by other empires alluded to Greek fire. In naval warfare, the fleet of the Byzantine Emperor An… It is widely accepted that Greek Fire was developed by one Greek Christian, Kallinikos (aka Callinicus) of Heliopolis. The Byzantine Empire unleashed its new secret war weapon upon the invading Saracen fleet in 678 AD. It was almost the equivalent of the nuclear option for sea. This weapon was extremely devastating, striking fear into the hearts of the enemy and effectively mowing down troops, ships, and other weapons of war. 1 0. Because the formula was only handed down from Emperor to Emperor little else is known about Greek Fire. A raiding Arab fleet with ambitions of sacking Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) was destroyed by Greek ships armed with their new superweapon. It is widely accepted that Greek Fire was developed by one Greek Christian, However, a similar substance is known to have existed long before Callinicus. Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs has become a favorite reference book among fantasy- and war-gamers and military history buffs around the world. From the pine and certain such evergreen trees, [an] inflammable resin is collected. The addition of sulfur might well have given the mixture the booming noise that Greek Fire is said to have been noted for. Documentaries, Live vids, releases and even Acoustic sessions. Nel trattato medievale Liber Ignium ad Comburendos Hostes scritto in latino da un certo Marcus Graecus si afferma che l'unico modo per spegnerlo sarebbe stato quello di usare urina, sabbia o aceto. Also, the Fire Ships' combat capabilit… Some have even speculated that it might have had gunpowder or "melted saltpeter" mixed in too. Shake/mix well, light, and catapult or trebuchet. The precise components of the liquid were a closely-guarded secret and the formula has long been lost but a light petroleum or naphtha is one known and vital ingredient, probably acquired from the Crimea region… The Arab land army, now lacking the support of their fleet, were forced to break the siege and retreat. The Byzantines typically used it in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning while floating on water. Just enter your email and we’ll take care of the rest: © Copyright 2020 | Interesting Engineering, Inc. | All Rights Reserved, We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. La formula della miscela che componeva il "fuoco greco" era nota soltanto all'imperatore e a pochi artigiani specializzati ed era custodita tanto gelosamente che la legge puniva con la morte chiunque avesse divulgato ai nemici questo segreto. [7], Fuoco Greco: ecco come funzionava la potente arma bizantina, ARMI DA FUOCO in "Enciclopedia dell'Arte Medievale", Le armi che hanno cambiato la storia di Roma antica, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fuoco_greco&oldid=112733442, Armi e strumenti da assedio dell'antichità, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo. Greek Fire provides a +40% increase over the normal range of 2.49 that Fire Ships normally have, allowing Byzantine Fire Ships, already the best in the game, to fire from much further away. These being the Byzantine imperial regalia, any royal princess, and Greek Fire. Greek Fire was an ancient superweapon devised, and used to great effect, by the Byzantine Empire. As these castles were gradually converted into stone, which made them much more resistant to fi… Il fuoco greco, la cui invenzione è attribuita a un greco del VII secolo originario della città di Eliopolis (oggi Baalbek in Libano), di nome Callinico,[5] oggi si ritiene fosse una miscela di pece, salnitro, zolfo, petrolio, nafta e calce viva, contenuta in un grande otre di pelle o di terracotta (sìfones) collegato ad un tubo di rame, montato sui dromoni bizantini. Arabian accounts from the time tell of the sticky liquid not adhering to heavy cloth or leather that had been soaked in vinegar. Another wrote: "Greek Fire is made as follows: take sulfur, tartar, sarcocolla, pitch, melted saltpeter, petroleum oil, and oil of gum, boil all these together, impregnate tow [i.e., the coarse or broken part of flax orhemp, prepared for spinning] with the mixture, and the material is ready to be set on fire. Fu proprio l'utilizzo del fuoco greco che fece fallire il secondo assedio di Costantinopoli, condotto dagli Arabi musulmani fra il 717 e il 718.[4]. This would, in no small part, enable the Byzantines and Constantinople to resist its many enemies for as long as it did. HERE and I am back with green fire. You may unsubscribe at any time. There is no single chemical reaction for this formula because the ratios and composition can vary so greatly. La miscela veniva spruzzata con la semplice pressione del piede sulle imbarcazioni nemiche oppure stipata dentro vasi di terracotta che venivano lanciati sul naviglio nemico tramite le petriere, similmente a mortai di artiglieria. La caratteristica che rendeva temuti questi primitivi lanciafiamme era che il fuoco greco, a causa della reazione della calce viva, non poteva essere spento con acqua, che anzi ne ravvivava la forza, e di conseguenza le navi, realizzate in quel periodo in legno, coi comenti[6] dello scafo impermeabilizzati tramite calafataggio e con velatura, sartie e drizze in fibre vegetali, anch'esse intrise di pece, erano destinate a sicura distruzione. Some accounts of Greek Fire suggest that petroleum and oil was used as an ingredient. n. An incendiary preparation first used by the Byzantine Greeks to set fire to enemy ships. In it he placed a chunk of Christ's cross to rescue the faith, classic writings to again shape Western thought, and the mysterious Greek Fire formula to protect it all. In the following article, we'll explore what it was and how it was used plus speculate as to its exact recipe. Accounts from the time, as well as contemporary images, indicate it would have had a similar effect to modern day napalm. Greek Fire is an American rock band from St. Louis, Missouri.The band was formed in 2008 by members of Story of the Year and Maybe Today. This is rubbed with sulfur and put into tubes, and is thrown forth by men using it with violent and continuous breath. It provided a technological advantage, and was responsible for many key Byzantine military victories, most notably the salvation of Constantinople from two Arab sieges, thus securing the Empire's survival. Greek Fire would become the most potent weapon of Christendom for over 700 years. Then in this manner, it meets the fire on the tip and catches the light and falls like a fiery whirlwind on the faces of the enemies.". The Greek fire was actually a weapon that was used by the Byzantine Empire. The Greek fire may sound like fires peculiar to Greece but the name has a very different and equally deadly meaning. This involved placing a wooden tower on a natural or artificial mound (motte) with an accompanying walled courtyard (bailey) at the base with the whole structure surrounded by a ditch or moat (which could be dry or contain water). C.K. Flammable liquids had been used in both Greek and Roman warfarebut nothing had ever been devised that was quite as lethal as Greek Fire. I myself was inspired by my research into ancient biological warfare to begin my . The first one was a mixture of chemicals. Please, Interesting Engineering Influences Behind Game of Thrones, Huge Fire Breaks Out at Beirut Port After Last Month's Massive Explosion, Massive Russian An-124 Condor Slides Off The Runway After Engine Failure, Volunteers Save 120 Whales From the Biggest Mass Stranding in Sri Lanka, What Happens When There Is a Fire or Flooding on a Nuclear Submarine. Accounts from the time speak of how Greek Fire would spontaneously catch fire and could not be put out using water. All things Greek Fire. Notable examples include those of Anna Komnene's Alexiad and De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Other Greek Fire recipe or formula which seems far more likely include a combination, or composition of ingredients such as … La sua efficacia bellica era assicurata dal fatto che gli … enjoy! Flaming arrows and firepots etc, it is clear Greek Fire was something very special indeed. The Kingdom of Pontus used a similar mixture against the Romans in during the Mithridatic Wars in the 1st century BC. Brian H. Lv 4. It was also employed by Romanus I Lecapenus against a Russian fleet in the 10th Century. The Kingdom of Pontus used a similar mixture against the Romans in during the. For this reason, Greek Fire was a closely guarded state secret with only a few people privy to its exact composition. However, a similar substance is known to have existed long before Callinicus. So closely kept was this secret that its precise composition is still unknown to this day but its reputation is as strong as it was over a millennium ago. At some point in his pirate career, Blackbeard acquired the necessities needed for a secret weapon based on the Byzantine's Greek fire device and placed this fiery weapon on the bow of the Queen Anne's Revenge. Greek fire synonyms, Greek fire pronunciation, Greek fire translation, English dictionary definition of Greek fire. It was an actual weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, which controlled Greecesince Theodosius (a Byzantine Emperor) and soon before the Fall of Constantinople. Greek Fire for the Byzantines granted a huge tactical superiority against all their seaborne foes for quite a while. Incendiary arrows and pots containing combustible substances were used as early as the 9th century BC by the Assyrians, and were extensively used in the Greco-Roman world as well. Greek Fire: The secret formula of Callinicus It is widely accepted that Greek Fire was developed by one Greek Christian, Kallinikos (aka Callinicus) of … Industry Interesting Engineering Influences Behind Game of Thrones. They are a sense of humour, vasoline, and water, and not necessarily in that order. Incendiary arrows and pots containing combustible substances surrounded by caltrops or spikes, or launched by catapults, were used as early as the 9th century BC by the Assyrians and were extensively used in the Greco-Roman world as well.

greek fire formula

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